Pine tree is the name given to needle-leaved species of the Pinus genus belonging to the Pinaceae (pine family) family. Places where it grows in Turkey: Almost every region.
The crown of young pine trees is generally conical branches horizontally and circumferentially arranged. The crown of old trees can be round, flat or broad. In most species, the stem bark is thick, rough and fissured. Although pine trees are drought tolerant, they need fresh air and plenty of light to grow and reproduce well. Coniferous trees that grow in a wide variety of heights, 10-20 m high, do not shed their leaves in winter, generally forming forests. It belongs to the class of conifers of gymnosperm plants. There are about 90 species of pine trees. It generally shows a wide spread area in the moderate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. They show a wide variety, as they show a very wide spread area up to the high mountains of the tropics. The reason why pine species also grow in arid habitats and are trees in arid lands is that needle leaves are formed from a hard and thick epidermis layer, and they benefit from the moisture of deep soil layers with their long root systems. Pines are less demanding in terms of soil. Therefore, they can easily grow in soils where other trees do not grow. However, there are many pine species that grow in arid, sandy, gravelly soils, as well as those that grow in acidic soils and even swamps.
The trunk of the pine tree is upright, cylindrical and branched from the top. The bark is brown in color and scaly. The branching style is characteristic by creating 2 types of shoots as long and short shoots. There is resin in the bark and wood part. The leaves are acicular, long or short, hard and dark green. They form groups in pairs and are located at the ends of short shoots. The life span of pine trees varies between 100 and 1000 years. However, one of the tallest trees in the world is also a pine species (P.aristata) and is about 4000 years old. Male flowers occur near the tops of the shoots. Flower powders are yellow in color. The female flowers make inflorescences called cones. The cone contains winged seeds.